Cone of Depression is created when created when groundwater is pumped from a well and the groundwater in turn flows toward the well from every direction. The pumping well creates an artificial discharge area by drawing down (lowering) the water table around the well, called the cone of depression.
Water Table is the upper level of an underground surface in which the soil or rocks are permanently saturated with water. The water table separates the groundwater zone that lies below it from zone of aeration that lies above it.
Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) is the surface and subsurface area surrounding a spring, well or wellfield, supplying a public water system through which contaminants are reasonably likely to move toward and reach that spring, well or wellfield.
Methemoglobinemia (Blue Baby Syndrome) is a condition that reduces the ability of the blood to transport oxygen throughout the body for essential metabolism due to the replacement of hemoglobin with methemoglobin in the blood.
Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS) is pollution that cannot be identified as coming from a specific source and thus cannot be controlled through the issuing of permits. Storm water runoff and some deposits from the air fall into this category.
Best Management Practices (BMPs) are policies, practices, procedures, or structures implemented to mitigate the adverse environmental effects on surface water quality resulting from development. BMPs are categorized as structural or non-structural. A BMP policy may affect the limits on a development.
Capital Gains is the profit resulting from the sale or exchange of a capital asset over its purchase price. Capital gains occur in both real assets, such as property, as well as financial assets, such as stocks or bonds.
Conservation Easement is a restriction placed on a piece of property to protect its associated resources. The easement is either voluntarily donated or sold by the landowner and constitutes a legally binding agreement that limits certain types of uses or prevents development from taking place on the land in perpetuity while the land remains in private hands.
Contingency Plan is a plan for responding to a system emergency. The plan includes performing backups, preparing critical facilities that can be used to facilitate continuity of operations in the event of an emergency, and recovering from a disaster.
Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are assessments of the likely positive or negative influence a project may have on the environment to ensure that decision-makers consider environmental impacts before deciding whether to proceed with new projects.
Footprint (or Eco-footprint) is the estimated impact of a person, city or country, on local, regional and global ecosystems. It is a measure of direct and indirect consumption of resources and production of wastes.
Land Trust is a nonprofit organization that, as all or part of its mission, actively works to conserve land, in the public interest, through land transactions - primarily the purchase or acceptance of donations of land or conservation easements. Most land trusts are private charitable corporations. Some land trusts are governmental or quasi-governmental agencies that operate with much of the flexibility and freedom of a private land trust.
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is the maximum allowed level of pollutant loading to a water body, that protects its uses and maintaining compliance with water quality standards, as defined in the Clean Water Act.
Zoning Ordinances are part of an adopted municipal code that establishes the type and amount of development that is permissible in specific zoning districts and which also establishes other development controls.
Drainfield is a porous soil area, through which septic tank leach lines run, emptying the treated waste. This is typically done by burying perforated pipes in trenches and allowing the liquid to leach out and the surrounding soil absorbs the unwanted waste.
Humus is any organic matter that is broken down as far as it can in its environment. In agriculture, "humus" is sometimes also used to describe mature compost, or natural compost extracted from a forest or other spontaneous source for use to amend soil.
Base Yield Plan: The maximum number of lots achievable under conventional Zoning Codeprovisions and Subdivision Rules and Regulations. The contents of this plan are similar to those of a Preliminary Subdivision Plan.
Bioretention System: The bioretention system (also referred to as a "rain garden" or a "biofilter") is a stormwater management practice to manage and treat stormwater runoff using a conditioned planting soil bed and planting materials to filter runoff stored within a shallow depression. The method combines physical filtering and adsorption with bio-geochemical processes to remove pollutants. The system consists of an inflow component, a pretreatment element, an overflow structure, a shallow ponding area (less than 9" deep), a surface organic layer of mulch, a planting soil bed, plant materials, and an underdrain system to convey treated runoff to a downstream facility.
Comprehensive Plan: Regional, state, or local documents that describe community visions for future growth. Comprehensive plans describe general plans and policies for how communities will grow and the tools that are used to guide land use decisions, and give general, long-range recommendations for community growth. Typical elements include, land use, housing, transportation, environment, economic development, and community facilities.
Site Plan Review A process where a government agency reviews the plans for a specific development. This often occurs to ensure that the plans conform to a community's municipal code and other governing land use regulations.